Boston

Sign up for your employee dental insurance by August 1!

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To enroll please complete 


Tufts University is pleased to announce that payment for the voluntary dental plan will now be processed by payroll deduction making is a more affordable option for dental insurance for Tufts University postdoctoral scholars! 


This insurance is voluntary and consists of the Delta Dental PPO Plus Premier Plan.  Please enroll by August 1 to be eligible for dental insurance between September 1, 2017 – December 31, 2017

Effective September 1, 2017 Tufts Support Services (TSS) will handle the administration and billing of the voluntary Delta Dental Plan.
The voluntary Delta Dental PPO Plus Premier Plan that is offered will run on the calendar year starting January 1, 2018. Information will be emailed to you in November 2017 on how to enroll and information regarding the new policy year, January 1, 2018 – December 31, 2018. 
Questions regarding plan benefits should be directed to Delta Dental at 800-872-0500 or www.deltadentalma.com . When selecting a dentist, please make sure to select in the Delta Dental PPO network,http://wsprod.deltadental.com/DentistSearch/MassachusettsDentistSearchController.ccl.

For enrollment questions, please contact Gianna Vroom, Director of Student Advisory & Health Administration Office at Gianna.Vroom(at)tufts.edu 


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Workshops in Preparing Future Professionals: A Model in Postdoc Career Development

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We were joined by Nathan Vanderford from the University of Kentucky on the second part of his seminar series, this time demonstrating valuable tools and lessons to develop a course or workshop on professional development for PhDs!





Realities of today’s workforce with PhD degrees

2% unemployment

52% within academic
48% outside academia

26% for profit
9% non-profit
8% federal employment
3% self-employed
2% state employment

Graduate students interest in moving into the tenure track declines over time:
41.7% First Year
21%Third Year
(Fuhmann et al CBE Life Sci Ed 2011)

But, there is no concerted training for alternative careers!

Goals of the course:
– Understand the realities of the job market
– Realise what skills are required to transition
– Identify resources
– Take action to prepare for their chosen career

Five Major Didactic Requirements:

Career Exploration
– Explore the career paths that are of interest to them
– Written paper on necessary skills

Transferrable Skills
– Perform a self assessment and create action plans for improving identified weaknesses

Informational Interviews
– Students contact an individual in their ideal career and conduct an informational interview to develop networking skills
– How did the interviewee obtain their workplace skills?
– How did graduate skill prepare you for this career?
– Expand student’s network by asking for additional points of contact

Career Development
– Students obtain experiences in critical components of the job search process including résumé and cover letter writing
– Practice interviewing and job search execution

Student Engagement
– Students interact with guest speakers as well as present their finding from each assignment to promote student-driven discussions

Demographics:
6% Postdocs
55% PhD trainees
32% Master’s students
6% Other (undergraduates, non-degree seekers)

Course Strengths:
– Safe environment to explore their career options and work through options in a positive way
– Self-assessment
– Identification of career options
– Student engagement
– Student-driven discussion
– Diversity of disciplines
– Development of work readiness skills

Course Challenges:
– Diversity of disciplines (which guest speakers, from which disciplines)
– Tuition (who pays?)
– Permission to attend (scheduling of the class versus time spend for research)
– Course versus workshop format

Course versus Workshop Format

Course:
Positives:
– Sustained engagement
– Incentives (grade) to participate
– Effective platform for exercises

Challenges:
– Costly
– Limited reach
– PI resistance

Workshop:
Positives:
– Free
– Reach a larger audience

Challenges:
– Interrupted engagement
– No incentive to participate in exercises
– Non-effective platform for exercises

Future Plans:
Certificate Program:
– Work hours component (4 hours)
– Course hours (2 hours)

Tips for trainees:

Goal setting tips:
– Write out goals and map out a strategy
– Post your goals where you can easily see them

Career Exploration and Networking:
– LinkedIn
– Alumni network
– Informational interviews
– Work Experience

Transferrable skills:
– Functional skills
– Knowledge-based skills
– Personal traits and attitudes

– A realistic assessment helps with your placement and career success

Tools to assess transferrable skills:
– Science Careers myIDP
– Gallup StrengthsFinder
– SkillScan
– MN Career Pathways
– Myers-Briggs Type Indicator

Getting More Out of Tufts’ Libraries with Laura Pavlech

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We were joined by Laura Pavlech, Research and Instruction Librarian at Hirsh Library and liaison to the Sackler School to learn more about library resources available to postdocs!

Library Essentials for Postdocs 

Laura Pavlech – Research and Instruction Librarian at Tufts University Hirsh Health Sciences Library


Contact info for the Hirsh Library (at the Boston Campus):
(671) 636-6705
Tufts University Libraries (6 total):

  • Hirsh Health Sciences Library (Boston Campus): Floors 4-7 on the Sackler building
  • Tisch Library (Medford Campus)
    • Lilly Music Library
  • Ginn Library (Government and International affairs at The Fletcher School)
  • Webster Family Library at the Vet School (Grafton Campus)
  • Digital Collections and Archives

The librarians can help with:

  • Literature search
  • Finding data and statistics
  • Using citation management programs
  • Developing data management plans (RDMS project, run by TTS – electronic lab notebooks)
  • Answering scholarly communications questions
  • Citation analysis and measuring research impact
All the libraries have their own websites. The Tisch library also has its own chat.


For upcoming workshops (WebEx-based): tischlibrary.tufts.edu/get-help/workshops
  • “Workshops on Demand”
  • You can also request a workshop for your lab or group at the library
  • Every Tufts postdoc should get a username and password to access their library account 
None of their resources require VPN!
To request interlibrary loans (ILLs): https://illiad.library.tufts.edu
  • If not available at the library, there is a charge of $4 for each request

Options to search for a journal:
  • hirshlibrary.tufts.edu -> Click on eJournals tab, write down the journal name, and the page will redirect to BrowZine to do the search (browzine.com/libraries)
      • Does not allow you to save PDFs
      • If at home, use BrowZine
  • Jumbo Search
  • Google Scholar
    • You can change your settings at Google Scholar:
      • Library links -> Search for Tufts University -> Check the Tufts University box -> Click on “Save”
  • FindIt@Tufts
    • For articles available within the library, you can request it and they print it out for you.
    • If not available within the library, go to ILLiad to request an interlibrary loan https://illiad.library.tufts.edu

Resources to find protocols and methods:

Approach to literature search:
  • Visualizing the literature search as a scientific approach.
  • Focused question:
    • “What is it you really want to know about?”
  • Identify key words/concepts
    • What is the topic?
    • What is the info needed?
    • Where can you find this info?
  • Look at the library research guide or ask the librarian

Indexing in PubMed:
  • Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) – standardized terms
    • Will be located at the bottom of the PubMed search page, once a paper is selected
    • Because it’s people who create the MeSH terms, sometimes it takes a little longer to do the search for a specific combination of words
    • MeSH terms are organized on a hierarchy and can be automatically searched on PubMed
    • Where to find a particular MeSH term?
      • Search for a particular term on the main search box -> Look at the “Search details” box on the right side of the screen (may need to scroll down a bit to find it)
      • Search can be restricted by using sub terms on the MeSH database directly
      • Set up a personalized PubMed account: 
        • Saves your searches
        • Break down your search by using 1-2 search term combinations and using “and” (to restrict your search) or “or” (to broaden your search)
          • Words on the search results will be highlighted
        •  Results will also be emailed to you
For writing a systematic review:
  • Request help from a librarian to find the right search databases as well as construct the right search terms

Popular workshops:
  • EndNote
  • Systematic Review
  • PubMed

Postdoc Appreciation Week: Speed Networking & Career Panel

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Learn about PhDs and Tufts alum that have successfully transitioned into careers in Industry! 

In attendance: 

Antoine Boudot – in vitro Cancer Biologist at Merrimack Pharmaceuticals (former postdoc at Tufts)
April Blodgett – Sales and bioconsulting at PerkinElmer
Anh Hoang – Co-founder / CSO at Sofregen Medical
Michael Mattoni – Senior patent agent at Mintz Levin
Travis D’Cruz – Licensing associate at Tufts University
Michael Doire – Department manager – Biology at Tufts University
Angela Kaczmarczyk – Scientist / Founder of BosLabs
Nina Dudnik – Scientist / Founder and CEO of Seeding Labs
What drove your career path away from academia?
April: A lot of work and little pay.
Antoine: Too many postdocs in the Boston/Cambridge area that also want to do the same as you do.
Travis: Going through the motions and seeing his PIs on their offices for so long, writing grants and not doing actual science.
Nina: Never wanted to be an academic. What she cared most about was not about the details of the experiment but to explain/communicate to others why the science matters.

What do you do to step away from the academic path? What research did you do to prepare yourself to move out of academia?

Antoine
  • He works at the bench everyday as he used to do as a postdoc, but he enjoys not having to worry about funding and getting materials/reagents. 
  • Set up a LinkedIn account and realized it was about building connections. He also went to networking events and started making connections within Merrimack. So start making connections now!
April
  • Make connections now. Do not expect to connect with people now and then ask for help or a job the following day. Having a vaccine background helped her (microbiologist by training). 
  • She loves the speed/demands of her job. She felt like making a change after several years and she likes doing sales, so she made the move and started thinking about previous experiences that translate to sales so that she could use them to get the job.
Ang:
  • After publishing in a high impact journal paper, nothing happens. What was conflicting for her was that all that work led to a high impact journal paper would not progress much beyond that. Thus, she wanted to do something about it and started a company.
  • She came from a large, well-funded research group, so she says she had resources. She also did studies toward a MBA. Postdoc’d at day and hustled at night.
  • Her postdoc did not prepare her for any of this! The learning curve was very steep. When starting a company you do wear 5 hats 40 hours a week. The postdoc prepared her for the science part (to sell the idea to investors), but not the business side of it. She didn’t know how to incorporate a company, how to pay her employees, how to provide them with benefits… People management is a whole different subject to deal with when setting up a company.
Michael M.:
  • Realized didn’t want to do research 3 or so years into the PhD, but he pushed through. He went to the tech transfer office and asked if they had an intern position. He now wears 3 hats at his job.
  • No need to be an attorney to become a patent agent.
  • Soft skills from the postdoc to apply for a job: the dealing with people, wearing twelve different hats.
Travis:
  • Sought out what other options are there. He found other postdocs who started a small consulting group and he joined them. That helped him stand out among a pool of job applicants when he finished his postdoc. Think outside the box!
Skills that you gained during your postdoc?

Michael D.
  • Took a different path: he did graduate school in molecular biology but as he progressed through grad school he realized that he didn’t want to necessarily do that. 
  • Skills: Learning does not often solely happen in the class room. You learn valuable skills at your work place. Rarely the person who knows more in the lab is not the PI (not in terms of the everyday requirements). It’s usually the lab manager/technician.
  • He looks for people with passion and knowledge. Doesn’t care about people coming from top schools alone.
Michael M.:
  • A major skill is to ask the right questions! In his case: what does a specific sector need? How can he become an asset to their organization? Utility-centered approach. Take initiative. Know where you want to go. Be honest to yourself about not knowing. Get it out of your system.
Michael D.:
  • Much easier to teach PhDs about management than management people learning how to do science!
What to do when you already know what you want?

Angela:
  • Started by writing for the student magazine at Berkeley. Went to a bio-hacking talk and was intrigued by it. Moved to Boston and acquired teaching experience at Harvard, then found out about space open to do science at Somerville. Science classes open to all backgrounds (a lot of them are engineers interested in learning biotechnology!)
  • Events during the weekends and a forum this Monday 9/26/16 at LabCentral.
  • She is also a visiting scientist at the Broad Institute.
  • In the future she wants to do the community lab (BosLabs) full-time.
Nina:
  • She thinks the biggest problems in the world can be addressed by science. Knew she wanted to be a geneticist when she was 13 (wanted to feed the world).
  • Incredible compulsion to solve problems. 
  • When in Harvard she realized that many labs had a surplus of or were wasting equipment that could be used further, so she started Seeding Labs 5 years even before she officially started Seeding Labs.
  • Got funding for Seeding Labs even before she started writing her thesis.
  • Started doing networking events and met people that helped her learn about finances and management.
  • She had to learn about 7 different languages she would not have learned when in academia to run the labs.
Michael M.:
  • You will never be prepared for the next step! You make it as you go along.





[Job Listings] Clinical/Data Analyst/Scientist openings at Bracket

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Senior Clinical Scientist


Position Overview:
The Clinical Scientist designs and executes clinical services to enhance clinical trials. The Clinical Scientist partners with the sponsor clinical representatives to ensure appropriate project definition and ensures that clinical deliverables are in accordance with project scope. The Clinical Scientist directly participates in attendance at face-to-face and virtual training events, and may participate in business development opportunities.

Essential Duties and Responsibilities:Other duties may be assigned.

Clinical Responsibilities
·         Collaborates with study sponsors to establish appropriate project definition
·         Reviews protocol/CRF and provides feedback as appropriate
·         Designs and ensures appropriate execution of project specific processes and data review methodologies; ensures appropriate training
·         Ensures development of appropriate clinical content (e.g., qualification methodologies, didactic presentations) for rater training and qualification programs for study staff in clinical trials
·         Evaluates data submitted in accordance with Endpoint Reliability programs and contacts raters, as appropriate, to gather additional information and provide feedback
·         Ensures that project clinical deliverables are in compliance with quality control standards
·         Proactively identifies and escalates potential project issues appropriately to project team, sponsor and/or manager
·         Communicates with study site staff in accordance with project specific methodology/SOPs and documents interaction in the respective IT application
·         Ensures compliance with quality assurance as outlined in SOPs/Clinical Operations Guidelines
·         Ensures consistency of product with actual project scope and resolves ambiguities in collaboration with both internal and external project teams
·         Monitors performance of external Clinical Experts

Management (Team Lead Only)
·         Provides direct line management to Clinical Scientist I/II, Clinical Specialist, Clinical Associate, Sr. Project Assistant, and/or Project Assistant
·         Conducts appropriate supervisory meetings, and monitors productivity
·         Ensures appropriate training and career progression

Business Development
·         Participates in business development opportunities as assigned (e.g., client meetings, bid-defenses, preparation of materials)
·         Attends conferences and scientific meetings as appropriate

Administration
·         Submits weekly report of activity to manager
·         Participates in orientation and training of staff as appropriate
·         Participates on committees as assigned
·         Completes required trainings in a timely manner
·         Enhances the Bracket’s Client Services business model by institutionalizing business processes, implementing best practices, templates, and seeking ways to work more efficiently
·         Ability to perform all responsibilities of Clinical Scientist II, if required

Skills & Competencies

Education
·         Masters Degree, M.D., Ph.D., Psy.D, Pharm.D., in healthcare-related field, with three years of clinical experience, which includes administration of psychiatric and/or cognitive scales OR
·         RN with four years of clinical experience, which includes administration of psychiatric and/or cognitive scales

Experience
·         Minimum of one year as successful Clinical Scientist II or equivalent

Personal Attributes
·         Excellent writing skills
·         Demonstrated strong analytical, organizational, creative problem solving and communication skills
·         Ability to succeed in a fast-paced, entrepreneurial environment
·         Basic knowledge of statistics
·         Competency conducting patient interviews
·         Comfortable with being videotaped
·         Competency working with data and numbers
·         Good negotiation and diplomacy skills
·         Successfully manages own time, proactively identifies and prioritizes multiple tasks
·         Ability to work with staff at all levels and across various disciplines
·         Excellent computer skills including Word, Excel and PowerPoint
·         Fluency in English (will be required to write, speak and understand English to conduct day-to-day business)
·         Detail oriented
·         Willingness to travel
·         Willingness to maintain flexible schedule

<




Position Title: Data Analyst II

Department:  Technical Delivery / Product Development
Reports To (Title):  Senior Manager, Manager, Team Lead
FLSA Status (exempt or non-exempt):  Non-exempt           

Position Overview:
The Data Analyst II is responsible for working with the Technical Delivery / Product Development staff to process data changes

Essential Duties and Responsibilities:
Note:  Other duties may be assigned.

·         Responsible for executing data change and data transfer requests.
·         Periodic database exports and transfers to client based on a pre-determined subset of the structure and content.
·         Writes and executes planned and ad-hoc SQL or SAS queries against MS SQL Database to extract data for Data Transfers and Reports.
·         Creates and executes Data Change Guides (DCGs) and determines corresponding risk/impact assessments.
·         Provides Data Transfers/Reports per approved Data Transfer Specifications.
·         Reviews, provides feedback and approves Data Transfer Plans and final Data Change Form documents submitted to clients.
·         Creates stored procedures to manipulate data for data-driven changes to IVR system functionality.
·         Creates DTS packages for imports into study databases.
·         Participates in special data-related projects as needed.
·         Demonstrate extreme attention to detail and organization in all aspects of work.
·         Follow Bracket Standard Operating Procedures for data change management, data transfer verification and risk/impact assessment documentation.
·         Some technical support after-hours, on-call time may be needed.
·         Other project work and responsibilities as required.

Skills & Competencies

Education
·         2-4 years of experience working in a data-driven environment.
·         In-depth working knowledge of Structured Query Language (SQL), as well as Microsoft Windows 2000/2003/XP and the suite of Microsoft Office applications.
·         Experience with standard data mining and data presentation techniques.
·         Proven ability to handle multiple competing priorities in a fast-paced work environment with minimal direct supervision.

Competencies & Personal Attributes
·         Must have excellent written communication skills, including the ability to effectively document procedures, processes and results.
·         Demonstrated ability to meet deadlines & multi-task in a fast-paced work environment.
·         Demonstrate extreme attention to detail and organization in all aspects of work.
·         Must have very strong skills with Microsoft Office applications.
·         Must be comfortable working with business users and technical teams.
·         Familiarity with SQL Queries is a plus.
·         Working knowledge of Visual Basic is a plus.
·         Familiarity with GCP and 21 CFR Part 11 is a plus.



Position Title:  Project Specialist, Client Services     


Department:  [eClinical or Scientific] Delivery Services
Reports To (Title):  Associate Project Manager, Project Manager or Sr. Project Manager, Client Services
FLSA Status (exempt or non-exempt):  Exempt                   

Position Overview:
Management and administration of projects at assigned pharmaceutical clients.  The projects will include clinical data quality services (e.g., EDC, ePRO, IxRS, rater training, endpoint reliability, scale management, cognition, etc.) for said pharmaceutical clients.

Essential Duties and Responsibilities:
Note:  Other duties may be assigned.

Data/Site Management (70%)
·         Manage identification and resolution of clinical trial data inquiries/data changes and communication to internal and external multi-function resources within project teams
·         Manage communications with client (e.g. pharmaceutical sponsor, CRO) and site personnel regarding site/study details
    • Facilitate weekly data review meetings with clinical trial study team leaders
·         Own in-study/maintenance transactional project activities throughout entire project lifecycle, e.g.  project variable fees, inter-department workflow assignment, issue escalation
·         Prepare study materials, including system requirements, data transfer documentation, questionnaires, rater experience surveys, response sheets, and other documents as required
·         Set up master systems, additional study hardware, study site folders, and data folders for clinical trial execution
·         Coordinate and set-up data for system launch as assigned
·         Design and configure unique project systems and manage data for each assigned project, utilizing proprietary IT applications (e.g. RDA, IR2, CDR PRISM, etc.)
·         Produce data reports (e.g., weekly, interim, final, etc.) for submission to pharmaceutical clients
·         Facilitate the closedown and archival of system databases
Training Event Management (15%)
·         Attend international large scale training events (e.g. Investigator’s Meetings, Phase I site staff training) and facilitate training sessions (requires frequent overnight domestic and international travel)
·         Coordinate with clients, vendors, and expert consultants to ensure all logistics, materials, and technologies necessary for successful training events are in place
·         Independently facilitate virtual training sessions (e.g. LiveMeeting) including attendee registration, training execution and issue resolution
Administration (15%)
·         Oversee project QC activities to ensure compliance within the enterprise Quality Management System
·         Work within project team to develop and implement processes for projects
·         Prepare and maintain in-study project plans, data management plans and study binders which will be executed in collaboration with Project Managers
·         Provide weekly status reports documenting project activities, planned steps and issues
·         Track monthly and quarterly metrics (variable fee budgetary items) and provide to Project Manager for invoicing
·         Training and development of teammates as appropriate
·         Leverage Project Assistant pool resources as required by project management
·         Enhance the Bracket business model by institutionalizing business processes, implementing best practices, templates, and seeking ways to work more efficiently
·         Contribute to the development, enhancement and testing efforts for enterprise IT applications (e.g. EDC, ePRO, IxRS, RDA, IR2, PRISM, CDR System, etc.)

Experience
·         Demonstrated proficiency as Senior Project Assistant or equivalent experience for a minimum of six (6) months

Skills & Competencies

Required Skills
·         College degree (B.S., B.A.)/University Degree for EU candidates or equivalent years of experience
·         Demonstrated analytical and organization abilities coupled with good client relationship skills
·         Exceptional customer service orientation
·         Demonstrated proficiency with computers, especially Microsoft Office (Excel, Access, Word, PowerPoint)
·         Fluency in English (will be required to write, speak and understand English to conduct day-to-day business.)
·         Ability to travel for business trips (overnight business trips expected monthly)
·         Ability to work independently and proactively in a small team environment with a strong attention to detail
·         Comfortable working in a fast-paced, changing environment
·         Flexible working style

Preferred skills:
·         Understanding of pharmaceutical clinical development and/or sales & marketing
·         Background in Pharmaceutical, Medical education and/or CRO

Ania’s guide to moving to the U S of A!

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Feel free to use this document to guide your way around the USA. Currently this document is curated from experiences that I have had, and will hopefully help you when you come to explore the great United States of America! Given my background, it is more tailored to Australian visitors, but all of the advice is applicable to other nationalities as well. 

Note: links are subject to change and may not work and this information may become dated.  
Updated: July 2016


Banking:
I would highly recommend opening up a bank that is global which exists in both your home country and the USA. A good example for Aussies is a Citibank account. Their everyday account let you take out cash from any Citibank ATM in the world with no surcharge or fee and their exchange rates are very reasonable (some of the best I have seen… and I spent months looking and comparing! See here. You can also easily transfer money almost instantaneously between AUS and USA citi accounts using their inter-citi system online for free (much cheaper then using a currency broker). 
Credit Rating:
Your credit rating in the USA is extremely important and may be used to determine whether you can rent an apartment, buy a car or take out a loan of any sort. Unfortunately, when you move to the USA, you cannot transfer your credit rate and start at zero. Luckily, you also don’t move any of your debt to the USA so often can build a good credit rating within a few years. The best way to start to do so, is to open a credit card, use it often and pay back the total sum within the due time-frame. 
Other things that matter is:
(From Consumer Finance.gov)
  • Pay your bills on time, every time. One way to make sure your payments are on time is to set up automatic payments, or set up electronic reminders. If you’ve missed payments, get current and stay current.
  • Don’t get close to your credit limit. Credit scoring models look at how close you are to being “maxed out,” so try to keep your balances low in proportion to your overall credit limit. Experts advise keeping your use of credit at no more than 30 percent of your total credit limit.
    Note: You don’t need to revolve on credit cards to get a good score. Paying off the balance each month helps get you the best scores.
  • A long credit history will help your score. Credit scores are based on experience over time. The more experience you have with getting credit and paying your bills on time, the more information there is to determine whether you are a good credit risk. Ania’s note: This tends to hurt international scholars the most, as you need a few years of good credit for it to be usable, even if you have a great score.
  • Only apply for credit that you need. Credit scores look at your recent credit activity as an indicator of your need for credit. If you apply for a lot of credit over a short period of time, it may appear to lenders that your economic circumstances have changed negatively.
 Don’t forget to check your credit score regularly to ensure nothing has been falsely reported against you. You are eligible to check your score for free, once a year.


Mobile Phones:
The USA is a bit weird with mobile phones and doesn’t seem to have as much competition and therefore worse prices in Australia (apart from decent coffee and mobile phone services, everything else is cheaper!). If you have an iPhone, the problem is compounded because Apple controls all of the vendors to some degree so you won’t be able to get internet with any prepaid plan with AT&T or Verizon. The only place you can get internet prepaid is at t-mobile (which I recommend). If you are going to be staying about a month, I would suggest their prepaid deals, some of which gives you unlimited internet, phone and texts and for $10 extra you can call international landlines and text internationally as much as you want (which includes many countries). You just charge as you go and is much much cheaper than getting an international sim card. As a comparison – this is actually cheaper than going on a 24 month contract with a company – you would be paying about twice that for the same thing. Weird huh?


Goods and Services Taxes
In many states the taxes DO NOT need to be included in the displayed price on the item. To make it even more confusing, each state taxes at different rates and for different things (e.g. clothes and shoes less then $175 are not taxes in Massachusetts, otherwise its 6.25%). So just be aware that the price on the tag or shelf may not reflect the actual price at the counter!


Tipping:
I admit, I had very little clue about tipping but when you realise wait staff make as little as $5 (or less) an hour, you can appreciate why you need to tip! TripAdvisor has a good guide, but here is a quick reference (all is calculated prior to taxes):


– Sit down food (anywhere; diner or formal dinner): 15% minimum, if very good, 20%
– Taxis: 15%
– Bars (drinks): $1-2 per drink or 10-15% of bill. A lot easier to set up a tab.
– Concierge/Bell boys/Cleaning staff at hotels: $1-2
– Any personal services (makeup/hair/massage): 15-20%
Thanks!
Postdoc Scholar – Kuperwasser Lab, 2012-2016